Reading laboratory: Innate immune detection and response to respiratory virus infections

Research Overview

Our research aims to determine how the body first recognizes and responds to influenza viruses and how virus strains of high virulence have adapted to evade detection and destruction by these early (or innate) immune defences.


John Barnes, Medical Scientist
Svenja Fritzlar, Post-Doctoral Scientist
Sarah Londrigan, Senior Research Officert
Lara Sonja Ute Schwab, PhD Student

Research Publications


  • Tate MD, Job ER, Deng YM, Gunalan V, Maurer-Stroh S, Reading PC.
    Playing hide and seek: how glycosylation of the influenza virus hemagglutinin can modulate the immune response to infection. Viruses 2014; 6(3): 1294-316.
  • Job ER, Bottazzi B, Short KR, Deng YM, Mantovani A, Brooks AG, Reading PC.
    A single amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin of H3N2 subtype influenza A viruses is associated with resistance to the long pentraxin PTX3 and enhanced virulence in mice. J Immunol 2014; 192(1): 271-81.
  • Ng WC, Liong S, Tate MD, Irimura T, Denda-Nagai K, Brooks AG, Londrigan SL, Reading PC.
    The macrophage galactose-type lectin can function as an attachment and entry receptor for influenza virus. J Virol 2014; 88(3): 1659-72.


  • Job ER, Deng Y, Barfod K, Tate MD, Caldwell N, Reddiex S, Maurer-Stroh S, Brooks AG, Reading PC.
    Addition of glycosylation to influenza A virus hemagglutinin modulates antibody mediated recognition of H1N1 2009 pandemic viruses.
    J Immunol 2013 Mar 1; 190(5): 2169-77.
  • Job ER, Bottazzi B, Edenborough KM, Gilbertson B, Brown LE, Mantovani A, Brooks AG, Reading PC.
    Serum amyloid P is a sialylated glycoprotein inhibitor of influenza A viruses.
    PLoS ONE 2013; 8(3): e59623.
  • Jegaskanda S, Laurie KL, Amarasena TH, Winnall WR, Kramski M, De Rose R, Barr IG, Brooks AG, Reading PC, Kent SJ.
    Age-associated cross-reactive ADCC toward 2009-pandemic influenza.
    J Infect Dis 2013 Oct; 208(7): 1051-61.
  • Jegaskanda S, Job ER, Kramski M, Laurie KL, Isitman G, De Rose R, Winnall WR, Stratov I, Brooks AG, Reading PC, Kent SJ. Cross-reactive influenza-specific antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) antibodies in the absence of neutralizing antibodies.
    J Immunol 2013 Feb 15; 190(4): 1837-48.


  • Londrigan SL, Tate MD, Brooks AG, Reading PC.
    Cell-surface receptors on macrophages and dendritic cells for attachment and entry of influenza virus.
    J Leuk Biol 2012; 92(1): 97-106.
  • Ng W, Tate MD, Brooks AG, Reading PC.
    Soluble host defense lectins in innate immunity to influenza virus.
    J Biomed Biotech 2012; 732191 (Epub May 16 2012).
  • Short KR, Brooks AG, Reading PC, Londrigan SL.
    The fate of influenza A virus after infection of human macrophages and dendritic cells.
    J Gen Virol 2012 Nov; 93(Pt 11): 2315-25.


  • Londrigan SL, Turville SG, Tate MD, Deng Y, Brooks AG, Reading PC.
    DC-SIGN and L-SIGN can mediate sialic acid-independent infection of cells by influenza A virus.
    J Virol 2011; 85(6): 2900-3000.
  • Tate MD, Brooks AG, Reading PC.
    Receptor Specificity of the Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Modulates Sensitivity to Soluble Collectins of the Innate Immune System and Virulence in Mice.
    Virology 2011; 413(1): 128-38.
  • Tate MD, Brooks AG, Reading PC.
    Specific Sites of N-linked glycosylation on the hemagglutinin of H1N1 subtype influenza A virus determine sensitivity to inhibitors of the innate immune system and virulence in mice.
    J Immunol 2011; 187(4): 1884-94.
  • Tate MD, Schilter HC, Brooks AG, Reading PC.
    Responses of Mouse Airway Epithelial Cells and Alveolar Macrophages to Virulent and Avirulent Strains of Influenza A Virus.
    Viral Immunol 2011; 24(2): 77-88.
  • Tate MD, Brooks AG, Reading PC.
    Correlation Between Sialic Acid Expression and Infection of Murine Macrophages by Different Strains of Influenza Virus.
    Microb Infect 2011; 13(2): 202-207.