Chronic immune activation during treated HIV disease
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An ongoing pathogenesis exists even during an effective HIV treatment plan due to chronic immune activation and the failure to reconstitute CD4 cells. It is still undecided in the field whether chronic immune activation from failed immune reconstitution is due to low-level viral replication or T-cell depletion. To measure low levels of bacterial DNA in human blood the Purcell lab devised an assay with immune activation markers during a clinical trial with Emery, Cooper, Kelleher and Lewin. In another trial that tested intensification of HIV therapy as well as high oral doses of anti-LPS antibody derived from hyper immune bovine colostrum, including all placebos. This human trial did not see a change in immune activation or the recovery of CD4+ T-cells but stimulated more collaborations which looked at the effects of increasing interferon-stimulated gene expression resulting in a failure to recover CD4+ T-cells.
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