Carbone laboratory: Immune response to herpes simplex virus

Research Overview

Our research laboratory focuses on two related areas. We are interested in the mechanisms by which peripheral antigen, as might be made during localised infection, makes its way to the lymphoid compartment for presentation to cytotoxic T cells. This involves the action of dendritic cells and can give rise to both immunity and tolerance. Our second major interest is the role of cytotoxic T cells during the course of infection with herpesviruses. In particular, we are interested in how these cells limit the spread of virus during primary infection and what effect they might have after the cessation of active virus replication and reversion to the state of latency.


Dr Asolina Braun, RO
Mr Nicholas Collins, PhD Student
Ms Melanie Damtsis, RA Dr Claerwen Jones, SRO Dr Jane Jie Li, PhD
Dr Ming Li, TA
Dr Dane Newman, RO

Research Publications

  1. Kastrukoff LF, Lau AS, Takei F, Carbone FR, Scalzo AA. A NK complex-linked locus restricts the spread of herpes simplex virus type 1 in the brains of C57BL/6 mice. Immunol Cell Biol 2015; 93: 877-84.
  2. Mackay LK, Braun A, Macleod BL, Collins N, Tebartz C, Bedoui S, Carbone FR, Gebhardt T. Cutting edge: CD69 interference with sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor function regulates peripheral T cell retention. J Immunol 2015; 194: 2059-63.
  3. Ma JZ, Russell TA, Spelman T, Carbone FR, Tscharke DC. Lytic gene expression is frequent in HSV-1 latent infection and correlates with the engagement of a cell-intrinsic transcriptional response. PLoS Pathog 2014; 10: e1004237.  Erratum in PLoS Pathog 2014; 10: e1004361.
  4. Lau LS, Fernandez-Ruiz D, Mollard V, Sturm A, Neller MA, Cozijnsen A, Gregory JL, Davey GM, Jones CM, Lin YH, Haque A, Engwerda CR, Nie CQ, Hansen DS, Murphy KM, Papenfuss AT, Miles JJ, Burrows SR, de Koning-Ward T, McFadden GI, Carbone FR, Crabb BS, Heath WR. CD8+ T cells from a novel T cell receptor transgenic mouse induce liver-stage immunity that can be boosted by blood-stage infection in rodent malaria. PLoS Pathog 2014; 10: e1004135.
  5. Stock AT, Smith JM, Carbone FR. Type I IFN suppresses Cxcr2 driven neutrophil recruitment into the sensory ganglia during viral infection. J Exp Med 2014; 211: 751-9.
  6. Zaid A, Mackay LK, Rahimpour A, Braun A, Veldhoen M, Carbone FR, Manton JH, Heath WR, Mueller SN. Persistence of skin-resident memory T cells within an epidermal niche. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2014; 111: 5307-12.
  7. Mackay LK, Rahimpour A, Ma JZ, Collins N, Stock AT, Hafon ML, Vega-Ramos J, Lauzurica P, Mueller SN, Stefanovic T, Tscharke DC, Heath WR, Inouye M, Carbone FR, Gebhardt T. The developmental pathway for CD103(+)CD8+ tissue-resident memory T cells of skin. Nat Immunol 2013; 14: 1294-301.
  8. Davey GM, Mueller SN, van Vliet C, Gigowski M, Zaid A, Davies B, Carbone FR, Heath WR. Identification of a MHC I-restricted epitope of DsRed in C57BL/6 mice. Mol Immunol 2013; 53: 450-2.
  9. Mackay LK, Stock AT, Ma JZ, Jones CM, Kent SJ, Mueller SN, Heath WR, Carbone FR, Gebhardt T. Long-lived epithelial immunity by tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells in the absence of persisting local antigen presentation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012; 109: 7037-42
  10. Mackay LK, Wakim L, van Vliet CJ, Jones CM, Mueller SN, Bannard O, Fearon DT, Heath WR, Carbone FR. Maintenance of T cell function in the face of chronic antigen stimulation and repeated reactivation for a latent virus infection. J Immunol 2012; 188: 2173-8.
  11. Eidsmo L, Stock AT, Heath WR, Bedoui S, Carbone FR. Reactive murine lymph nodes uniquely permit parenchymal access for T cells that enter via the afferent lymphatics. J Pathol 2012; 226: 806-13.
  12. Lau LS, Fernandez Ruiz D, Davey GM, de Koning-Ward TF, Papenfuss AT, Carbone FR, Brooks AG, Crabb BS, Heath WR. Blood-stage Plasmodium berghei infection generates a potent, specific CD8+ T-cell response despite residence largely in cells lacking MHC I processing machinery. J Infect Dis 2011; 204: 1989-96.
  13. Gebhardt T, Whitney PG, Zaid A, Mackay LK, Brooks AG, Heath WR, Carbone FR, Mueller SN. Different patterns of peripheral migration by memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Nature 2011; 477: 216-9.
  14. Hubert FX, Kinkel SA, Davey GM, Phipson B, Mueller SN, Liston A, Proietto AI, Cannon PZ, Forehan S, Smyth GK, Wu L, Goodnow CC, Carbone FR, Scott HS, Heath WR. Aire regulates the transfer of antigen from mTECs to dendritic cells for induction of thymic tolerance. Blood 2011; 118: 2462-72.
  15. Valkenburg SA, Day EB, Swan NG, Croom HA, Carbone FR, Doherty PC, Turner SJ, Kedzierska K. Fixing an irrelevant TCR alpha chain reveals the importance of TCR beta diversity for optimal TCR alpha beta pairing and function of virus-specific CD8+ T cells. Eur J Immunol 2010; 40: 470-81.
  16. Stock AT, Jones CM, Heath WR, Carbone FR. Rapid recruitment and activation of CD8+ T cells after herpes simplex virus type 1 skin infection. Immunol Cell Biol 2011; 89: 143-8.
  17. Lundie RJ, Young LJ, Davey GM, Villadangos JA, Carbone FR, Heath WR, Crabb BS. Blood-stage Plasmodium berghei infection leads to short-lived parasite-associated antigen presentation by dendritic cells. Eur J Immunol 2010; 40: 1674-81.
  18. Kastrukoff LF, Lau AS, Takei F, Smyth MJ, Jones CM, Clarke SR, Carbone FR. Redundancy in the immune system restricts the spread of HSV-1 in the central nervous system (CNS) of C57BL/6 mice. Virology 2010; 400: 248-58.
  19. Davey GM, Wojtasiak M, Proietto AI, Carbone FR, Heath WR, Bedoui S. Cutting edge: priming of CD8 T cell immunity to herpes simplex virus type 1 requires cognate TLR3 expression in vivo. J Immunol 2010; 184: 2243-6.

Reviews or commentaries

  1. Mackay LK, Carbone FR. Skin –resident T cells keep parasites on a Leish. J Exp Med 2015; 212: 1340-1.
  2. Carbone FR. Tissue-resident memory T cells and fixed immune surveillance in nonlymphoid organs. J Immunol 2015; 195: 17-22.
  3. Gebhardt T, Carbone FR. Unpleasant memories: tissue-embedded T cell memory drives dkin hypersensitivity. Nat Med 2015; 21: 551-2.
  4. Mackay LK, Carbone FR. CD4 helpers put tissue-resident memory cells in their place. Immunity 2014; 41: 514-5.
  5. Carbone FR, Gebhardt T. Immunology. A neighborhood watch upholds local immune protection. Science 2014; 346: 40-1.
  6. Mueller SN, Zaid A, Carbone FR. Tissue-resident T cells: dynamic players in skin immunity. Front Immunol 2014; 5: 332.
  7. Heath WR, Carbone FR. The skin-resident and migratory immune system in steady state and memory: innate lymphocytes, dendritic cells and T cells. Nat Immunol 2014; 14: 978-85.
  8. Carbone FR, Mackay LK, Heath WR, Gebhardt T. Distinct resident and recirculating memory T cell subsets in non-lymphoid tissues. Curr Opin Immunol 2013; 25; 329-33.
  9. Mueller SN, Gebhardt T, Carbone FR, Heath WR. Memory T cell subsets, migration patterns, and tissue residence. Ann Rev Immunol 2013; 31: 137-61.
  10. Gebhardt T, Mueller SN, Heath WR, Carbone FR. Peripheral tissue surveillance and residency by memory T cells. Trends Immunol 2013; 34: 27-32.
  11. Bedoui S, Carbone FR. Indiscriminate memories during infection control. Immunity 2012; 37: 445-6.
  12. Carbone FR, Heath WR. Cross-priming: its beginnings. J Immunol 2010; 185: 1353-4.