Kent laboratory: HIV vaccines; immune responses to HIV-1; immunotherapy
A vaccine against HIV and improved Influenza vaccines are urgently needed. The Kent lab is working towards these goals. Our dedicated staff and students drive innovation and new thinking in ways to tackle the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Prof Kent was recently awarded the Peter Doherty Award for Outstanding PhD Supervision which reflects the quality of our work and PhD students in this area.
- The HIV problem
The HIV pandemic continues to expand rapidly around the world, notably in the Asian-Pacific and Africa. Public health and economic burdens of HIV represent a major threat to regional and global security. Preventative strategies remain limited, and therapeutic options are restricted in both efficacy and implementation. The lack of an effective HIV vaccine is a catastrophic failure of our public health response to the epidemic.
Better strategies are needed to prevent HIV infection and disease. This requires an understanding of how HIV causes AIDS, including which immune responses control HIV replication and which contribute to disease. A better understanding of effective immunity will expand the pipeline to novel treatment and prevention strategies. Despite the clear need, development of HIV-1 vaccines has proceeded for 20+ years without success. HIV has a propensity to mutate to avoid immune responses and form latent reservoirs - these are formidable challenges to developing successful vaccines. There is a palpable sense in the HIV vaccine research community that fresh innovative ideas are needed. Quantum leaps away from existing paradigms will be needed to make large inroads into defining protective immunity to HIV-1.
To further understand how immune responses can control HIV, we have a series of projects involved in developing new assays to measure immunity and the effect these immune responses have on the virus. We have recently developed a new and exciting technique to measure antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), now headed by Dr Amy Chung and her group. We developed a very simple assay on small volumes of blood to measure ADCC responses and are now studying how useful it is in people with HIV and whether it forces the virus to mutate to escape this potentially important response. Dr Matt Parsons and his group are studying the importance of ADCC and activated NK cell sin preventing and controlling HIV. Although T cell immunity is effective against the virus, immune escape is a hallmark of effective T cell immunity. We have developed innovative techniques to measure immune escape variants very sensitively. This allows us to study the impact of these escape mutants and whether it can force the virus into a weakened state. We have become very interested in how immune responses target the envelope protein of the virus. We are now trying to understand how neutralising antibodies and T cell immunity against envelope could help corner the virus. We also have ongoing projects studying how small but important lymphocyte populations such as regulatory T cells, NKT cells, other CD1-restricted T cell and MAIT cells can help control HIV and other pathogens, led by Dr Jen Juno.
- The Influenza Problem
Seasonal influenza pandemics continue to sweep the globe, with the Melbourne 2017 winter a particularly severe epidemic. There is also the ever-present threat of new pandemics. Drs Adam Wheatley and Sinth Jegaskanda are leading a vibrant team studying influenza immunity using a series of highly novel assays to probe B cell immunity. We have been able to adapt our novel ADCC assays to understand how ADCC immunity controls influenza pandemics.
Our understanding of immune responses against HIV and Influenza allows us to push on with developing novel vaccine technologies. In particular we have an exciting project studying nanoparticle vaccines where tiny capsules are loaded with vaccine antigens to protect them from degradation and target important immune cells that stimulate effective immunity. In addition we have exciting projects studying influenza recombinant vaccines and their ability to induce resident memory T cells, headed by Dr Hyon-Xhi Tan. These flexible vaccine technologies allow us to refine our understanding of what will constitute effective immunity to HIV and Influenza.
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Dr Amy Chung, RO
Dr Robert De Rose, SRO
Dr Matthew Parsons, RO
Dr Ivan Stratov, SRO
Dr Adam Wheately, RO
Dr Wendy Winnall, RO
Ms Sheilajen Alcantara, TA
Ms Thakshila Amarasena, TA
Ms Fernanda Ana Sosa Batiz, PhD
Ms Shayarana Gooneratne, PhD
Miss Sarah Lloyd, PhD
Dr Vijaya Madhavi, RO
Mr Hyon-Xhi Tan, PhD
Mr Joshua Glass, PhD
Ms Hillary Anne Vanderven, PhD
Mr Wen Shi Lee, PhD
Miss Thao Nguyen, Honours
Mr William Lay, Medical Student
Miss Anne Kristensen, Masters
Mr Kevin John Selva, PhD
- Combined influenza-AIDS vaccines
- Nanoparticle HIV vaccines
- NKT cells, MAIT cells and HIV
- Influenza–specific ADCC: Role in a universal flu vaccine?
- Antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity - a neglected anti-HIV iImmune response!
- DC targetting vaccines
- Checkmating HIV - trapping immune escape HIV strains
Faculty Research Themes
School Research Themes
For further information about this research, please contact Professor Stephen Kent